Objective: Few studies have explored the clinical features in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus (IV), and adenovirus (ADV). Herein, we reported the clinical characteristics and cytokine profiling in children with COVID-19 or other acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI).
Methods: We enrolled 20 hospitalized children confirmed as COVID-19 positive, 58 patients with ARTI, and 20 age and sex-matched healthy children. The clinical information and blood test results were collected. A total of 27 cytokines and chemokines were measured and analyzed.
Results: The median age in the COVID-19 positive group was 14.5 years, which was higher than that of the ARTI groups. Around one-third of patients in the COVID-19 group experienced moderate fever, with a peak temperature of 38.27 ℃. None of the patients displayed wheezing or dyspnea. In addition, patients in the COVID-19 group had lower white blood cells, platelet counts as well as a neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. Lower serum concentrations of 14 out of 27 cytokines were observed in the COVID-19 group than in healthy individuals. Seven cytokines (IL-1Ra, IL-1β, IL-9, IL-10, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and VEGF) changed serum concentration in COVID-19 compared with other ARTI groups.
Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 were older and showed milder symptoms and a favorable prognosis than ARTI caused by RSV, IV, and ADV. There was a low grade or constrained innate immune reaction in children with mild COVID-19.