Since the global outbreak of COVID-19, there has been a significant reduction in pediatric outpatient and emergency visits for infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in respiratory viruses in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Shanghai in the past 10 years, especially in the first year after COVID-19.
We conducted a retrospective, observational study; the results for eight common respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus A and B, parainfluenza virus 1–3 (PIV), adenovirus (ADV) and human metapneumovirus) tested by direct fluorescent antibody assays in hospitalized CAP cases in Children’s Hospital of Fudan University during 2010–2020 were analyzed.
Of the 5544 hospitalized CAP patients included in this study, 20.2% (1125/5544) were positive for the eight respiratory viruses. The top three pathogens were RSV, PIV3 and ADV, detected from 9.8% (543/5544), 5.3% (294/5544) and 2.0% (111/5544) of the samples, respectively. RSV had the highest positive rates among children < 2 years old. In 2020, the detection rate of all viruses showed a sharp decline from February to August compared with the previous 9 years. When the Shanghai community reopened in August 2020, the detection rate of eight viruses rebounded significantly in September.
These eight respiratory viruses, especially RSV and PIV, were important pathogens of CAP in Shanghai children in the past 10 years. The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the detection rates for eight respiratory viruses in children with CAP in Shanghai.